The International Dyslexia Association’s definition of dyslexia states:
Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.
Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge (Perspectives on Dyslexia, 29, Winter, 2003).
As defined in TEC §38.003 (The Dyslexia Law):
· “Dyslexia” means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and socio-cultural opportunity.“Related disorders” includes disorders similar to or related to dyslexia such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability
Section 504 is a federal law designed to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive federal funds from the U.S. Department of Education (ED). Section 504 provides: "No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States . . . shall solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance . . . ."
Office of Civil Rights enforces Section 504 in programs and activities that receive funds from ED. Recipients of these funds include public school districts, institutions of higher education, and other state and local education agencies. The regulation implementing Section 504 in the context of educational institutions appears at 34 C.F.R. Part 104.
The Section 504 regulation requires a school district to provide a "free appropriate public education" (FAPE) to each qualified student with a disability who is in the school district's jurisdiction, regardless of the nature or severity of the disability. FAPE consists of the provision of regular or special education and related aids and services designed to meet the student's individual needs.
Response to Intervention (RtI)
RtI is the practice of meeting the academic and behavioral needs of all students through a variety of services containing the following key elements:
• High-quality instruction and scientific research-based tiered interventions aligned with individual student need
• Frequent monitoring of student progress to make results-based academic and/or behavioral decisions
• Application of student response data to important educational decisions (such as those regarding placement, intervention, curriculum, and instructional goals and methodologies)
The instructional approaches used within the general education setting should result in academic and/or behavioral progress for the majority of the students. Struggling students are identified using data-based student progress monitoring and provided intensive instruction. The use of scientifically validated curricula and teaching methods expected in an RtI model leads to data-based school improvement.
Benefits of RtI
RtI holds the promise of ensuring that all children have access to high quality instruction and that struggling learners, including those with learning disabilities (LD), are identified, supported, and served early and effectively. Driven and documented by reliable data, the implementation of RtI in Texas schools can result in
• more effective instruction;
• increased student achievement;
• more appropriate LD identification;
• increased professional collaboration; and
• overall school improvement
(TEA Response to Intervention Guidance 2008-2009)
Dyslexia Campus Contacts